The Southern Ocean Exchange: porous boundaries between humpback whale breeding populations in southern polar waters

In the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, the southern distribution of some populations from the Northern Hemisphere overlaps in equatorial regions with the northern distribution of some populations from the Southern Hemisphere. Despite these overlaps in distribution, these Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere populations are unlikely to co-occur in their breeding areas, because the seasons and directions of their northward and southward migrations segregate populations spatiotemporally.

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